close up photo of an aperture in a camera lens

The aperture is a small set of blades in the lens that controls how much light will enter the camera.  The blades create a octagonal shape that can be widened (we photogs call it shooting “wide open”), or closed down to a small hole.  Obviously, if you shoot with the aperture wide open, then more light is allowed into the camera than if the aperture is closed down to only allow a tiny hole of light to enter the camera.

Shutter Speed

The shutter is a small “curtain” in the camera that quickly rolls over the image sensor (the digital version of film) and allows light to shine onto the imaging sensor for a fraction of a second. The longer the shutter allows light to shine onto the image sensor, the brighter the picture since more light is gathered.  A darker picture is produced when the shutter moves very quickly and only allows light to touch the imaging sensor for a tiny fraction of a second. The duration that the shutter allows light onto the image sensor is called the shutter speed, and is measured in fractions of a second.  So a shutter speed of 1/2 of a second will allow more light to touch the image sensor and will produce a brighter picture than a shutter speed of 1/200 of a second. So if you’re taking a picture an it is too dark, you could use a slower shutter speed to allow the camera to gather more light.


The funny thing about ISO is that it is an acronym, but nobody really knows what it stands for.  It is always just called ISO even though it really stands for International Organization for Standardization.  Every once in a while, you’ll hear an older photographer pronounce it “I-so”, but almost everyone pronounces it “I.S.O.” The ISO controls the exposure by using software in the camera to make it extra sensitive to light.

2. )

Two Shot: This is a shot of two peoples (or other individuals) together.

Cut Away (CA): Cutaways are used in the editing process to fill in footage which is different from the main action.  B-roll is often used for cut-aways.  An example might be a cut away of a bird singing if the shot is focused on a couple in the woods.

Over the Shoulder Shots (OSS) are shot from behind the person towards their subject.  Generally the frame is cut off just behind the ear, although there are several variations.  A good technique to use to get this shot is to frame the person facing the subject with about one third of the frame.

Point of View (POV): This is an effective shot that gives the audience the feel that you’re seeing it from the eyes of the performer.  It is taken from near the eye-level of the actor and shows what he might see.  It could be used to give the perspective of other animals too like a frog, a bird, or a fish.

Selective Focus: By using a large aperture value (f/1.4, f/2.0) you will be able to create a shallow depth of field.  This effectively leaves one part of the frame in focus while blurring others, such as the foreground or background.  When you change the focus in the shot from the foreground to the background you’re doing another advanced camera shot called a rack focus.



  1. List format audio

  -Uncompressed audio format

– Lossy compressed audio format


During processing, lossless compression rips audio files so that they reduce in size, but no quality is lost. It’s a perfect copy of the original sound. You can also convert one lossless format to another without any loss of quality. But the one thing you can’t ever do is convert lossless to lossy, not because it’s impossible, it’s just a stupid thing to do. For more info, read why converting FLAC to MP3 or WAV to MP3 is a terrible thing to do.
On the other hand, lossy compression reduces the size of an original file up to ten times, so 100 MB become 10 MB, but some audio data is irreversibly lost therefore it may sound as if a song lacks something, or the other way round, some sound artifacts can appear.
May people prefer lossless audio because it sounds deeper and clearer. Lossy is more about the quality rather than quantity. This type of compression makes it possible to store thousands of tracks on an HDD or a portable device, and download music faster. Lots of people can’t tell the difference between lossy and lossless music, but it’s because they tend to use poor quality speakers and headphones. In reality, the difference is apparent; your ears just have to get used to high quality.



  1. Compare and contrast teacher vs students centered learning strategies.

    Teacher-centered education

    In teacher-centered education, students put all of their focus on the teacher. You talk, and the students exclusively listen. During activities, students work alone, and collaboration is discouraged.


    • When education is teacher-centered, the classroom remains orderly. Students are quiet, and you retain full control of the classroom and its activities.
    • Because students learn on their own, they learn independence and make their own decisions.
    • Because you direct all classroom activities, you don’t have to worry that students will miss an important topic.


    • When students work alone, they don’t learn to collaborate with other students, and their communication skills may suffer.
    • Teacher-centered instruction can be boring for students. Their minds may wander, and they may miss important facts.
    • Teacher-centered instruction doesn’t allow students to express themselves, ask questions, and direct their own learning.



Student-centered instruction

When a classroom operates with student-centered instruction, students and instructors share the focus. Instead of listening to the teacher exclusively, students and teachers interact equally. Group work is encouraged, and students learn to collaborate and communicate with one another.


  • Students learn important communicative and collaborative skills through group work.
  • Students learn to direct their own learning, ask questions, and complete tasks independently.
  • Students are more interested in learning activities when they can interact with one another and participate actively.


  • Because students are talking, classrooms may often be noisy or chaotic.
  • Teachers may have to attempt to manage all students’ activities at once, which can be difficult when students are working on different stages of the same project.
  • Because the teacher doesn’t always deliver instruction to all students at once, some students may miss important facts.
  • Some students prefer to work alone, so group work can become problematic.




a.       Cooperative learning


  • Raise achievement of students.
  • Build positive relationships among students – important for creating a learning community that values diversity.
  • Provide experiences that develop both good learning skills and social skills.


    Group Dynamic Dilemmas

Classroom Management Challenges

b.      Gamification Better learning experience.

Better learning environment.

Prompting behavioral change.

Gamification Can Appear Artificial est Takers Might Consider the Exam “Less Serious”



c.       Discovery Learning t encourages motivation, active involvement, and creativity

It can be adjusted to the learner’s pace

It promotes autonomy and independence

It ensures higher levels of retention

(Sometimes huge) cognitive overload, potential to confuse the learner if no initial framework is available, etc.

Measurable performance (compared to hard-core instructional designs) is worse for most learning situations.

Creations of misconceptions (“knowing less after instruction”)

Weak students have a tendency to “fly under the radar” (Aleven et al. 2003) and teacher’s fail to detect situations needing strong remediation or scaffolding.

d.      Inquiry based learning Student engagement is high because they are actively thinking and working to get results or to solve a problem.


Students develop as critical thinkers rather than sponges that gain information the way it is presented to them

External problems – constraints with time, curriculum, students’ abilities and classroom structure, required much time and effort to prepare for and conduct experiments.


Internal problems – lack of knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, anxiety over incorrect outcomes that might come from an experiment.

e.      Project based learning -Gives more personal investment into an activity

-deeper understanding of material

-helps develop independence, creativity, responsibility, self control, etc.

-learn to work with other children

-learn to listen to other people’s ideas and opinions

-letting them teach themselves

Students may not feel encouraged to finish their projects

-Their can be a lack of interest in their project subject which would lead them to not want to participate or get distracted

-Accidentally accessing inappropriate content

-Teachers could come into problems while they prepare/Have to think of ways to get students back on track

-Could be uncomfortable for students with disabilities



  1. Define cyber learning with example of classroom application?

Learn how new developments in computer-mediated learning can enhance educational experiences in this video produced by KQED. Hear from experts, and explore three examples of cyberlearning: students learn about astronomy and game design in the Universe Quest project; students use remote scientific equipment to learn about radiation with the iLab Network; and students use handheld devices to play an augmented reality game from MIT and learn about climate change

2. Describe cyberlearning literacy and its implementation in classroom.

Making sure pupils are employable is an obvious driver for schools. So, developing technical skills is crucial. But digital literacy doesn’t just mean IT proficiency (although knowing how to use tech is now an essential life skill).

In fact, digital literacy is separate from computer literacy. It requires critical thinking skills, an awareness of the necessary standards of behaviour expected in online environments, and an understanding of the shared social issues created by digital technologies. Or alternatively: digital literacy = digital tool knowledge + critical thinking + social engagement.

3. Identify three web 2.0 resources.









  1. what are the primary types of criteria used to analyze teachers?

        Analyze learners

         State Objctive

         Selaect method, media,materials

         Utilize media aned materials

         Require learner participation

        Evaluate and revice

      2. Why are learning objective is important?

Learning objectives are a critical component of instruction. They have two important functions:

  1. Provide course developers guidance on selecting suitable:
    • instructional materials;
    • teaching methods, including learning activities and use of technology;
    • assessment methods.
  2. Help students focus on what they are expected to learn, and understand how they will be assessed.

This is why we always emphasize that learning objectives should be specific and measurable. The example below demonstrates good alignment of learning objectives, learning activities, and assessments. It shows us how a clearly stated learning objective can help an instructor create appropriate learning activities to help students acquire the desired skills and select good assessment tools to evaluate students’ achievement.

3.  What  are four component crafting a good learning objective?


– Behaviour








1.  What are the eight principles of effective instruction.


1. Develop mastery learning.

2.  Don’t dismiss knowledge as ‘lower order’.

3. Expect excellence from all

4. Guide learning

5. Ensure that students have to think hard

6. Put deliberate practice into lessons

7. Test to improve learning

8. Use questioning frequently and rigorously

2. Describe the similirities and diferences principles of effectives technology and media?

Similirities-is 21 century students because they learn both of technology and media.

Differences-is technology need teacher to guide and teacher are expected to incoperate technology in classroom.

-Media need literacy skills need teacher to guide them how to access                                media.

3.What is digital distruption?

Digital disruption is the change that occurs when new digital technologies and business models affect the value proposition of existing goods and services.

source- Hannah Parlaman,EDUC 318-Dr. Sessoms, Chapter http://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/digital-disruption




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